26 Data Administration

The data administration module provides a range of functions to ensure that the data stored in the DHIS2 database is integral and that the database performance is optimised. These functions should be executed on a regular basis by a data administrator to ensure that the quality of the data stored is optimal.

26.1 Data integrity

DHIS2 can perform a wide range of data integrity checks on the data contained in the database. Identifying and correcting data integrity issues is extremely important for ensuring that the data used for analysis purposes is valid. Each of the data integrity checks that are performed by the system will be described, along with general procedures that can be performed to resolve these issues.

26.1.1 Data elements without data set

Each data element must be assigned to a data set. Values for data elements will not be able to be entered into the system if a data element is not assigned to a data set. Choose Maintenance->Datasets->Edit from the main menu and then add the “orphaned” data element to the appropriate data set.

26.1.2 Data elements without groups

Some Data Elements have been allocated to several Data Element Groups. This is currently not allowed, because it will result in duplication of linked data records in the analytics record sets that provide aggregated data. Go to Maintenance -> Data Element Groups to review each Data Element identified and remove the incorrect Group allocations.

26.1.3 Data elements violating exclusive group sets

Some data elements have been allocated to several data element groups that are members of the same data element group set. All group sets in DHIS2 are defined as exclusive, which means that a data element can only be allocated to one data element group within that group set. Go to Maintenance -> Data elements and indicators ->Data element groups to review each data element identified in the integrity check. Either remove the data element from all groups except the one that it should be allocated to, or see if one of the groups should be placed in a different group set.

26.1.4 Data elements in data set but not in form or sections

Data elements have been assigned to a data set, but have not been assigned to any sections of the data set forms. All data sets which use section forms, should generally have all data elements in the data set assigned to exactly one section of the dataset.

26.1.5 Data elements assigned to data sets with different period types

Data elements should not be assigned to two separate data sets whose period types differ. The recommended approach would be to create two separate data elements (for instance a monthly and yearly data element) and assign these to respective datasets.

26.1.6 Data sets not assigned to organisation units

All data sets should be assigned to at least one organisation unit.

26.1.7 Sections with invalid category combinations

Data sets which use section forms should only have a single category combination within each section. This violation could result from assigning a data element to a section, but then changing the category combination of this data element at a later point in time.

26.1.8 Indicators with identical formulas

Although this rule will not affect data quality, it generally does not make sense to have two indicators with the exact same definition. Review the identified indicators and their formulas and delete or modify any indicator that appears to be the duplicate.

26.1.9 Indicators without groups

All data elements and indicators must be assigned to at least one group, so these Indicators need to be allocated to their correct Data Element and Indicator Group. From the main menu, go to Data elements/Indicators -> Indicator Groups, and allocate each of the `Orphaned` indicators to its correct group.

26.1.10 Invalid indicator numerators

Violations of this rule may be caused by an incorrect reference to a deleted or modified data element. Review the indicator and make corrections to the numerator definition.

26.1.11 Invalid indicator denominators

Violations of this rule may be caused by an incorrect reference to a deleted or modified data element. Review the indicator and make corrections to the denominator definition.

26.1.12 Indicators violating exclusive group sets

Some indicators have been allocated to several indicator groups that are members of the same indicator group set. All group sets in DHIS2 are defined as exclusive, which means that an indicator can only be allocated to one indicator group within that group set. Go to Maintenance -> Data elements and indicators ->Indicator groups to review each indicator identified in the integrity check. Either remove the indicator from all groups except the one that it should be allocated to, or see if one of the groups should be placed in a different group set.

26.1.13 Duplicate periods

If periods have been imported from external applications, it may be possible that some periods will be duplicated. If you have any periods which appear to be duplicated here, you will need to resolve these directly in the DHIS2 database. All data which has been assigned to the duplicated period, should be moved to the correct period, and the duplicate period should be removed.

26.1.14 Organisation units with cyclic references

Organisation units cannot be both parent and children of each other, directly nor indirectly. If this situation occurs, you will need to resolve the cyclic reference directly in the DHIS2 database in the “organisation unit” table, by reassigning the “parentid” field of the organisation units.

26.1.15 Orphaned organisation units

All organisation units must exist within the organisation unit hierarchy. Go to Organisation- units >Hierarchy Operations and move the offending organisation unit into the proper position in the hierarchy.

26.1.16 Organisation units without groups

All organisation units must be allocated to at least one group. The problem might either be that you have not defined any compulsory OrgUnit Group Set at all, or that there are violations of the compulsory rule for some OrgUnits . NOTE: If you have defined no compulsory OrgUnit Group Sets, then you must first define them by going to Organisation units->Organisation unit group sets and define at least one compulsory Group Set (the group set ‘Type’ are nearly universally relevant). If you have the relevant group sets, go to Maintenance -> OrgUnit Groups to review each OrgUnit identified and add the relevant Group allocation.

26.1.17 Organisation units violating compulsory group sets

These organisation units have not been assigned to the any organisation unit group within one of the compulsory organisation unit group sets. When a group set is defined as compulsory, it means that an organisation unit must be allocated to at least one organisation unit group within that group set. For instance, all organisation units must belong to one of the groups in the ‘Type’ group set. It might belong to the `Hospital` or the `Clinic` or any other ‘type’ group - but it must belong to exactly one of them. Go to Organisation units->Organisation unit groups to review each organisation unit identified in the integrity check. Allocate all organisation units to exactly one compulsory group.

26.1.18 Organisation units violating exclusive group sets

Some organisation units have been allocated to several organisation unit groups that are members of the same organisation unit group set. All group sets in DHIS2 are defined as exclusive, which means that an organisation unit can only be allocated to one organisation unit group within that Group Set. For instance, one organisation unit cannot normally belong to the both the ‘Hospital’ and ‘Clinic’ groups , but rather to only to one of them. Go to Organisation unit->Organisation unit groups to review each organisation unit identified in the integrity check. Remove the organisation units from all groups except the one that it should be allocated to.

26.1.19 Organisation unit groups without group sets

The organisation unit groups listed here have not been allocated to a group set. Go to Maintenance->Organisation unit->Organisation unit group sets and allocate the Organisation unit group to the appropriate group set.

26.1.20 Validation rules without groups

All validation rules must be assigned to a group. Go to Maintenance app > Validation rule group and assign the offending validation rule to a group.

26.1.21 Invalid validation rule left side expressions

An error exists in the left-side validation rule definition. Go to Maintenance app > Validation rule and click Edit on the offending rule. Click Left side and make the required corrections.

26.1.22 Invalid validation rule right side expressions

An error exists in the right-side validation rule definition. Go to Maintenance app > Validation rule and click Edit on the offending rule. Click Right side and make the required corrections.