10.4 Before DHIS2

In 2012 UNICEF began making massive investments in Zambia with its Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) program, a methodology for mobilizing communities to completely eliminate open defecation (OD). This program, however, depended on paper records to be collected and physically delivered to the district level from the villages. This process could take 6 months or longer and left UNICEF, partners, and the Ministry of Local Government and Housing with stale and unusable data.