21.5 Manage indicators

21.5.1 About indicators

An indicator is a formula that can consist of multiple data elements, constants, organisation unit group counts and mathematical operators. The indicator consist typically of a numerator and denominator. You use indicators to calculate coverage rates, incidence and other values that are a result of data element values that have been entered into the system. Calculated totals do not have a denominator.

Note

You never enter indicators directly in DHIS2, you calculate them.

An indicator formula can consist of mathematical operators, for example plus and minus, and of the following elements:

Indicator formula
Formula element Type Description

Constant

Component

Constants are numerical values which remain the same for all indicator calculations. This is useful in order to have a single place to change values that might change over time.

Constants are applied AFTER data element values have been aggregated.

Data elements

Component

Data elements are substituted by the data value captured for the data element.

Days

Operator

“Days” is special operator that always provides the number of days for a given indicator calculation.

For example: if you want to calculate the “Percentage of time vaccine refrigerator was non-functional”, you could define the numerator as:

(“Days-”Number of days vaccine refrigerator was available"“)/”Days"

If the fridge was available 25 days in June, the indicator would be calculated as:

(30-25/25)*100 = 17 %

If you want to calculate the total for Quarter 1, the number of days (“Days”) would be:

31+28+31 = 90

The “Days” parameter will always be the number of days in the period of interest.

Organisation unit counts

Component

You can use organisation unit groups in formulas. They will be replaced by the number of organisation units in the group. During aggregation, the organisation units in the group will be intersected with the part of the organisation unit hierarchy being requested.

This lets you use the number of public facilities in a specific district in indicators. This is useful for example when you create facility infrastructure surveys and reports.

Programs

Component

Click Programs and select a program to view all data elements, attributes and indicators related to a specific program.

The program components you include in your formula will have a program tag assigned to them.

In the Maintenance app, you manage the following indicator objects:

Indicator objects in the Maintenance app

Object type

Available functions

Indicator

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

Indicator type

Create, edit, clone, delete, show details and translate

Indicator group

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

Indicator group set

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

21.5.2 Workflow

  1. Create indicator types.

  2. Create indicators.

  3. Create indicator groups.

  4. Create indicator group sets.

21.5.3 Create or edit an indicator type

Indicator types define a factor that is applied during aggregation. Indicator values that are calculated during a data mart export or report table generation process will appear properly formatted, and will therefore not require an additional multiplier (for example 100 in the case of percents) for the values to appear correctly formatted.

Note

As of version 2.4 of DHIS2, the “Calculated data element” object has been deprecated. Instead, you can create a calculated data element by creating an indicator type with a factor of “1” and by setting the “Number” option to “Yes”. The effect of setting the “Number” option to “Yes” will be that the indicator will effectively not have a denominator. You will therefore only be able to define a numerator, which will serve as the formula of the calculated data element.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Indicator > Indicator type .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. In the Name field, type the name of the indicator type, for example “Per cent”, “Per thousand”, “Per ten thousand”.

  4. Type a Factor .

    The factor is the numeric factor that will be multiplied by the indicator formula during the calculation of the indicator.

  5. Click Save .

21.5.4 Create or edit an indicator

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Indicator > Indicator .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. In the Name field, type the full name of the indicator, for example “Incidence of confirmed malaria cases per 1000 population”.

  4. In the Short name field, type an abbreviated name of the indicator, for example “Inc conf. malaria per 1000 pop”.

    The short name must be less than or equal to 25 characters, including spaces.

  5. (Optional) In the Code field, assign a code.

    In many countries indicators are assigned a code.

  6. In the Description field, type a brief, informative description of the indicator and how it is calculated.

  7. If you want to apply an annualization factor during the calculation of the indicator, select Annualized .

    Typically, an annualized indicator’s numerator is multiplied by a factor of 12, and the denominator is for instance a yearly population figure. This allows for monthly coverage values to be calculated with yearly population figures.

  8. Select the number of Decimals in data output .

  9. Select an Indicator type .

    This field determines a factor that will automatically be applied during the calculation of the indicator. Possible choices are determined by the indicator types. For example, a “Percent” indicator will automatically be multiplied by a factor of 100 when exported to the data mart, so that it will display as a percentage.

  10. (Optional) Assign one or multiple Legends .

  11. In the URL field, enter a link, for example a link to an indicator registry, where a full metadata description of the indicator can be made available.

  12. (Optional) Enter a Category option combination for aggregate data export. .

    You use this setting to map aggregated data exported as raw data to another server. Typically you do this type of data exchange mapping when you want to create anonymous aggregated data from patient data recorded in programs (event data).

  13. (Optional) Enter an Attribute option combination for aggregate data export. .

    You use this setting to map aggregated data exported as raw data to another server. Typically you do this type of data exchange mapping when you want to create anonymous aggregated data from patient data recorded in programs (event data).

  14. If applicable, enter custom attributes values, for example Classification or Collection method .

    Note

    You create custom attributes in the Maintenance app: Other > > Attributes .

  15. Click Edit numerator .

    1. Type a clear description of the numerator.

    2. Define the numerator by double-clicking components in the right-hand field. The components then appears as part of the formula in the left-hand field. Add mathematical operators by double-clicking the icons below the left-hand field.

      You formula must be mathematically valid. This includes correct use of parentheses when necessary.

    3. Click Done to save all changes to the numerator.

  16. Click Edit denominator .

    1. Type a clear description of the denominator.

    2. Define the denominator by double-clicking components in the right-hand field. The components then appears as part of the formula in the left-hand field. Add mathematical operators by double-clicking the icons below the left-hand field.

      You formula must be mathematically valid. This includes correct use of parentheses when necessary.

    3. Click Done to save all changes to the denominator.

  17. If applicable, select compulsory indicator group sets, for example Human resources .

    Note

    You’ll only see indicator group sets in this form if you’ve created them and set them to Compulsory .

    You create indicator group sets in the Maintenance app: Indicator > Indicator group set .

  18. Click Save .

21.5.5 Create or edit an indicator group

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Indicator > Indicator group .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. Type a name.

  4. Select indicators and assign them.

  5. Click Save .

21.5.6 Create or edit an indicator group set

Indicator group sets create combined groups of similar indicators. For example, you might have a group of indicators called “Malaria” and “Leishmaniasis”. Both of these groups could be combined into a group set called “Vector-borne diseases”. Indicator groups sets are used during analysis of data to combine similar themes of indicators.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Indicators > Indicator group .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. Fill in the form:

    1. Name

    2. Description

    3. Compulsory

  4. Select indicator groups and assign them.

    Available indicator groups are displayed in the left panel. Indicator groups that are currently members of the indicator group set are displayed in the right hand panel.

  5. Click Save .

21.5.7 Clone metadata objects

Cloning a data element or other objects can save time when you create many similar objects.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to clone.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Clone .

  3. Modify the options you want.

  4. Click Save .

21.5.8 Change sharing settings for metadata objects

You can assign different sharing settings to metadata objects, for example organisation units and tracked entity attributes. These sharing settings control which users and users groups that can view or edit a metadata object.

Some metadata objects also allows you to change the sharing setting of data entry for the object. These additional settings control who can view or enter data in form fields using the metadata.

Note

The default setting is that everyone ( Public access ) can find, view and edit metadata objects.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to modify.

  2. In the object list, click the context menu and select Sharing settings .

  3. (Optional) Add users or user groups: search for a user or a user group and select it. The user or user group is added to the list.

  4. Change sharing settings for the access groups you want to modify.

    • Can edit and view : The access group can view and edit the object.

    • Can view only : The access group can view the object.

    • No access (only applicable to Public access ): The public won’t have access to the object.

  5. Change data sharing settings for the access groups you want to modify.

    • Can capture data : The access group can view and capture data for the object.

    • Can view data : The access group can view data for the object.

    • No access : The access group won’t have access to data for the object.

  6. Click Close .

21.5.9 Delete metadata objects

Note

You can only delete a data element and other data element objects if no data is associated to the data element itself.

Warning

Any data set that you delete from the system is irrevocably lost. All data entry forms, and section forms which may have been developed will also be removed. Make sure that you have made a backup of your database before deleting any data set in case you need to restore it at some point in time.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to delete.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Delete .

  3. Click Confirm .

21.5.10 Display details of metadata objects

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to view.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Show details .

21.5.11 Translate metadata objects

DHIS2 provides functionality for translations of database content, for example data elements, data element groups, indicators, indicator groups or organisation units. You can translate these elements to any number of locales. A locale represents a specific geographical, political, or cultural region.

Tip

To activate a translation, open the System Settings app, click > > Appearance and select a language.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to translate.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Translate .

    Tip

    If you want to translate an organisation unit level, click directly on the Translate icon next to each list item.

  3. Select a locale.

  4. Type a Name , Short name and Description .

  5. Click Save .