21.2 Manage categories

21.2.1 About categories

Categories are typically a concept, for example “Gender”, “Age” or “Disease Status”. Data elements such as “Number of cases of confirmed malaria” are often broken into smaller component parts to determine, for example, the number of confirmed malaria cases of particular age groups.

Use categories to disaggregate data elements into individual components. You can also use categories to assign metadata attributes to all data recorded in a specific dataset, such as “Implementing partner” or “Funding agency.”

Create three categories: “Under 1”, “1-5” and “Over 5”. Assign them as categories to the data element. This creates three separate fields for this data in the data entry forms:

  • Number of confirmed malaria cases (Under 1)

  • Number of confirmed malaria cases (1-5)

  • Number of confirmed malaria cases (Over 5)

Without categories, you would have had to create each of the data elements listed above separately.

In the Maintenance app, you manage the following and category objects:

Category objects in the Maintenance app

Object type

Available functions

Category option

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

Category

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

Category combination

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

Category option combination

Edit and show details

Category option group

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

Category option group set

Create, edit, clone, share, delete, show details and translate

21.2.2 Workflow

  1. Create all category options.

  2. Create categories composed by the multiple category options you’ve created.

  3. Create category combinations composed by either one or multiple categories.

  4. Create data elements and assign them to a category combination.

21.2.3 Create or edit a category option

When possible, recycle category options. For instance, there might be two categories which might share a particular category option (for example <1 year of age). When creating the categories, this category option could be reused. This is important if particular category options (or category option combinations) that need to be analyzed together.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Category > Category option .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. Fill in the form:

    1. Name

    2. Short name

    3. Start date

    4. End date

  4. Select organisation units and assign them.

    Tip

    You can automatically select all organisation units that belong to an organisation unit level or organisation unit group, for example “Chiefdom” or "Urban. To do this:

    Select an Organisation unit level or Organisation unit group and click Select .

  5. Click Save .

21.2.4 Create or edit a category

When you have created all category options for a particular category, you can create that category.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Category > Category .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. Fill in the form:

    1. Name

    2. Code

    3. Data dimension type

      A category either be of type “Disaggregation” or “Attribute”. For disaggregation of data elements, you select Disaggregation . The data dimension type “Attribute” allows the category to be used to assign a combination of categories to data recorded through a data set.

    4. Data dimension

      If you select Data dimension , the category will be available to the analytics as another dimension, in addition to the standard dimensions of “Period” and “Organisation unit”.

  4. Select category options and assign them.

  5. Click Save .

21.2.5 Create or edit a category combination

Category combinations lets you combine multiple categories into a related set.

You can disaggregate the data element “Number of new HIV infections” into the following categories:

  • HIV Service: “Other”, “PMTCT”, “TB”

  • Gender: “Male”, “Female”

In this example, there are two levels of disaggregation that consist of two separate data element categories. Each data element category consist of several data element category options.

In DHIS2, different data elements are disaggregated according to a common set of categories. By combining these different categories into a category combination and assigning these combinations to data elements, you can apply the appropriate disaggregation levels quickly to a large number of data elements.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Category > Category combination .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. Fill in the form:

    1. Name

    2. Code

    3. Data dimension type

    4. Skip category total in reports

  4. Select categories and assign them.

  5. Click Save .

21.2.6 Create or edit a category option group

You can group and classify category options by using category option groups. The main purpose of the category option group set is to add more dimensionality to your captured data for analysis in for example the Pivot table or Data Visualizer apps.

In a system, data is collected by “projects”, where projects is modeled as category options. The system must be able to analyse data based on which donor that supports the project. In this case, create a category option group set called “Donor”. Each donor can be created as a category option group, where each category option / project is put in the appropriate group. In the data analysis applications, the “Donor” group set will appear as a data dimension, while each donor appear as dimension items, ready to be included in reports.

To create a category option group:

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Category > Category option group .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. Fill in the form:

    1. Name

    2. Short name : Define a short name for the data element.

    3. Code

    4. Data dimension type

  4. Select Category options and assign them.

  5. Click Save .

21.2.7 Create or edit a category option group set

You can group category option groups in category option group sets. The main purpose of the category option group set is to add more dimensionality to your captured data for analysis in for example the Pivot table or Data Visualizer apps.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Category > Category option group set .

  2. Click the add button.

  3. Fill in the form:

    1. Name

    2. Description

    3. Data dimension

    4. Data dimension type

  4. Select Category option groups and assign them.

  5. Click Save .

21.2.8 Use category combinations for data sets

When categories and category combinations have the data dimension type “Attribute”, they can apply a common set of attributes to a related set of data values contained in a data set. When category combinations are used as a attribute, they serve as another dimension (similar to “Period” and “Organisation unit”) which you can use in your analysis.

Suppose that a NGO is providing ART services in a given facility. They would need to report each month on the “ART monthly summary”, which would contain a number of data elements. The NGO and project could potentially change over time. In order to attribute data to a given NGO and project at any point in time, you need to record this information with each data value at the time of data entry.

  1. Create two categories with the data dimension type “Attribute”: “Implementing partner” and “Projects”.

  2. Create a category combination with the data dimension type “Attribute”: “Implementing partners and projects”.

  3. Assign the categories you’ve created to the category combination.

  4. Create a data set called “ART monthly summary” and select the “Implementing partners and projects” category combination.

When you enter data in the Data entry app, you can select an “Implementing partner” and a “Project”. Each recorded data value, is assigned a specific combination of these categories as an attribute. These attributes (when specified as a dimension) can be used in the analysis applications similar to other dimensions, for example the period and organisation unit.

21.2.9 Assign a code to a category option combination

You can assign a code to category option combinations. This makes data exchange between DHIS2 and external systems easier. The system creates the category option combinations automatically.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and click Category > Category option combination .

  2. In the list, find the object you want to modify.

  3. Click the options menu and select Edit .

  4. Enter a code.

  5. Click Save .

21.2.10 Clone metadata objects

Cloning a data element or other objects can save time when you create many similar objects.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to clone.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Clone .

  3. Modify the options you want.

  4. Click Save .

21.2.11 Change sharing settings for metadata objects

You can assign different sharing settings to metadata objects, for example organisation units and tracked entity attributes. These sharing settings control which users and users groups that can view or edit a metadata object.

Some metadata objects also allows you to change the sharing setting of data entry for the object. These additional settings control who can view or enter data in form fields using the metadata.

Note

The default setting is that everyone ( Public access ) can find, view and edit metadata objects.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to modify.

  2. In the object list, click the context menu and select Sharing settings .

  3. (Optional) Add users or user groups: search for a user or a user group and select it. The user or user group is added to the list.

  4. Change sharing settings for the access groups you want to modify.

    • Can edit and view : The access group can view and edit the object.

    • Can view only : The access group can view the object.

    • No access (only applicable to Public access ): The public won’t have access to the object.

  5. Change data sharing settings for the access groups you want to modify.

    • Can capture data : The access group can view and capture data for the object.

    • Can view data : The access group can view data for the object.

    • No access : The access group won’t have access to data for the object.

  6. Click Close .

21.2.12 Delete metadata objects

Note

You can only delete a data element and other data element objects if no data is associated to the data element itself.

Warning

Any data set that you delete from the system is irrevocably lost. All data entry forms, and section forms which may have been developed will also be removed. Make sure that you have made a backup of your database before deleting any data set in case you need to restore it at some point in time.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to delete.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Delete .

  3. Click Confirm .

21.2.13 Display details of metadata objects

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to view.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Show details .

21.2.14 Translate metadata objects

DHIS2 provides functionality for translations of database content, for example data elements, data element groups, indicators, indicator groups or organisation units. You can translate these elements to any number of locales. A locale represents a specific geographical, political, or cultural region.

Tip

To activate a translation, open the System Settings app, click > > Appearance and select a language.

  1. Open the Maintenance app and find the type of metadata object you want to translate.

  2. In the object list, click the options menu and select Translate .

    Tip

    If you want to translate an organisation unit level, click directly on the Translate icon next to each list item.

  3. Select a locale.

  4. Type a Name , Short name and Description .

  5. Click Save .