The amount of data in a DHIS2 database can easily go beyond the capabilities of Excel. A table with around 1 million values (rows of data) tend to become less responsive to updates (refresh) and pivoting operations, and on some computers Excel will give out of memory errors when dealing with tables of this size. Typically, the more powerful the computer, the more data can be handled, but the top limit seems to be around 1 million rows even on the high-end computers.
To deal with this problem the standard DHIS2 pivot table setup is to split the data over several pivot tables. There are different ways of splitting the data; by organisation unit aggregation level (how deep), by organisation unit coverage/boundary area (how wide), by period (e.g. one year of data at a time), or by data element or indicator groups (e.g. by health programs or themes). Aggregating away the lowest level in the organisation unit hierarchy is the most effective approach as it reduces the amount of data by a factor of the number of health facilities in a country. Typically there is no need to look at all the health facilities in a country at the same time, but instead only for a limited area (e.g. district or province). And when there is a need for data for the whole country that can be provided with district level aggregates or similar. At a district or province office the users will typically have facility level data only for their own area, and then for the neighboring areas the data will be aggregated up one or two levels to reduce the size of data, but still allow for comparison, split into e.g. the two tables Facility Data and Data District Data, and similar for indicator values. Splitting data by period or by data element/indicator groups work more or less in the same way, and can be done either in combination with the organisation unit splitting or instead of it. E.g. if a health program wants to analyse a few data elements at facility level for the whole country that can be possible. The splitting is controlled by the pivot views in the database where one specifies which data values to fetch.